vulvar cancer infographic

Vulvar Cancer 101: Symptoms, Causes, Stages, Diagnosis & Treatment

Feeling a persistent itch down there? It could point to vulvar cancer. Explore the types, symptoms and causes, as well as how to get diagnosed or treated.

by Jo-Kym New

What is Vulvar Cancer?

Vulvar cancer occurs when cancerous cells form and rapidly multiply on the outer area of the female genitalia. This part of the human body is known as the vulva. It consists of the vestibule (opening of the vagina), the labia (inner and outer skin folds), the clitoris (sensitive tissue between the lavia), and the perineum (the area between the vagina and the anus).

vulva anatomy

Not to be confused with its cousin vaginal cancer (which occurs inside the vagina), vulvar cancer is very rare around the world. It is estimated to have about 50 new cases annually in Malaysia alone. Nevertheless, this cancer occurs mostly in older women of ages 65-75 and can be fatal.

Symptoms of Vulvar Cancer

The 10 most common symptoms of vulvar cancer are:

  1. Persistent itching that doesn’t go away
  2. An open cut or sore on the vulva that won’t heal
  3. A lump or mass on the vulva
  4. Pelvic pain during sex or when peeing
  5. Bleeding or unusual discharge from the vulva that is unrelated to menstrual bleeding
  6. A lasting soreness or a burning sensation in the genital area
  7. Colour changes of the vulva area (red, pink, or white)
  8. Texture changes of the vulva area (feeling rough or thick)
  9. Size changes of a mole or mark on the vulva
  10. Vulvar tenderness

Every woman experiences these symptoms differently. Since it may take several years for noticeable symptoms to develop, it is fundamental for every woman to go for regular screenings to ensure a healthy vulva. 

If you experience one or more of the warning signs above, speak to a doctor or your gynaecologist immediately. 

Causes & Risk Factors of Vulvar Cancer


Because this type of cancer is so rare, little is known about the exact cause of vulvar cancer. In general, researchers continue to study how gene mutation can turn normal cells into cancerous cells. Others found that human papillomavirus (HPV) and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infections could play a key role in vulvar cancers as you would read more of below.

Risk Factors

Vulvar cancers involve modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. These include but are not limited to:

  • Age: Age-related changes make one more susceptible to this and many other cancers. Although, some cases of vulvar cancers can begin as early as 40 years of age.
  • Lichen sclerosus: A skin condition that typically occurs around the genital or anal areas, making the skin patchy, white, and unusually thin. 
  • Exposure to cancer-causing agents: Cancer-causing chemicals found in carcinogens can increase the risk of cancer, including vulvar cancer.
  • Exposure to HPV infection: HPV is a group of viruses that is sexually transmitted via skin-to-skin contact. It is also a common risk factor of vulvar cancer and cervical cancer
  • Exposure to HIV infection: Also contracted during sexual activity, HIV is another group of viruses that damages the immune system. It can also raise the risk of HPV or lengthen their infection.
  • Other risk factors also include precancerous conditions or a family history of melanoma.

It is important to note that while some risk factors may increase your risk of developing vulvar cancers, most people are in the clear. That’s why it’s difficult to pinpoint which risk factor is the actual cause when a person is diagnosed with vulvar cancer. 

Types & Stages of Vulvar Cancer

There are 5 main types of vulvar cancer, namely:

  1. Squamous cell carcinomas: A large, fungating mass that develops in the skin cells, resulting in an abnormal growth on the surface of the vulva. It is the most common of the five (making up 90% of vulvar cancers).
  2. Melanoma: Forms as dark pigmentation (black or dark brown, but can sometimes appear red or white) throughout the vulva, but mostly on the clitoris or labia. It is the second most common (making up 5% of vulvar cancers).
  3. Adenocarcinoma: Develops in the cells in the Bartholin’s glands right at the opening of the vagina. 
  4. Sarcoma: A visible mass that occurs in the cells of bones, muscles, or connective tissues. Considered very rare.
  5. Basal cell carcinoma: Develops as lesions. While it is the most common type of skin cancer, it occurs very rarely on the vulva (less than 1%).

Vulvar Cancer Stages

Due to the complexity of stage grouping, we’ll cover only the four main stages by International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) to give you a general sense:

Stages Stage Description
Stage I The cancer is present but confined to the vulva or the perineum.
Stage II The cancer grows in size and extends into the lower third of the vagina or urethra, or the lower-third of the anus.
Stage III The cancer continues to grow in size and spreads to one or more nearby lymph nodes. It does not spread to distant sites.
Stage IV The cancer further spreads into other parts of the genitals. It may progress to form an ulcer and has fixed to nearby or distant lymph nodes, or pelvic bone.

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Getting A Diagnosis for Vulvar Cancer

Can Vulvar Cancer Be Detected Early?

There is no standard screening for vulvar cancer, but getting regular screening can improve the chances of early detection and successful treatment. In other words, don’t wait around for any symptoms to show.

Your doctor will run one or more tests that are similar to that of ovarian screening:

Medical History

The doctor will ask about family history and as well as your overall health, including symptoms, habits or medical conditions.

Physical & Pelvic Examination

Then, the doctor will perform blood tests and examine your physical body for any irregularities. This includes a pelvic exam where the doctor will feel your uterus, ovaries, cervix, and vagina. 

In the case of any abnormalities, you may be referred to a gynaecologist (a physician or surgeon skilled in the female genital system) for further testing.

Colposcopy & Biopsy 

In a colposcopy (also known as vulvoscopy), the doctor uses a magnifying instrument called a colposcope to zoom into the problem areas of the vulvar surface.

Next, the doctor will perform a biopsy. A biopsy is the removal of tissue or fluid to see if cancer or pre-cancer cells are present. 

Imaging Tests

Imaging tests are used to create detailed cross-sectional images of the inside of your body. They’re extremely useful in detecting tumours and the spread. You would know them as X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scan, positron emission tomography (PET) scan, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). 

HPV Test

The HPV test is done when your doctor will take cell samples from your cervix or vagina. This is to detect the presence of cancer-causing types of HPVs. 

HPV testing is recommended once every 5 years in women aged 30 and above who have already had sexual intercourse. Women often schedule the test 14 days after the first day of their menstrual period.

While a pap smear test does not screen for vulvar cancer, routine pap testing is still recommended for individuals between 21 to 65 years old to check for any abnormalities.

Getting Treatment for Vulvar Cancer

The good news is the 5-year relative survival rate for Stage I of vulvar cancer is at 90 percent. The cure rate on the other hand is above 90 percent when the cancer is detected and treated early. 

Vulvar cancer can be treated, depending on factors like your age, cancer stage, and overall health condition. Your doctor will discuss some treatment options and how this might change your lifestyle. In several cases, they may suggest a combination of treatments. It’s a good idea to get a second opinion before you lock down your decision.

Similar to most other cancers, there are three main types of treatment for vulvar cancer: 


Surgery is the most common treatment for vulvar cancer, especially when the cancer hasn’t spread beyond the vulva. 

The surgeon performs a simple excision to remove the tumour and surrounding tissues. If the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes, the surgeon would also remove the affected lymph nodes to prevent further spreading into other parts of the body.

It isn’t uncommon that some doctors recommend radiation therapy and chemotherapy to shrink the tumour to ease the operation and minimise complications such as slow healing or infection.

Radiation therapy

Radiotherapy is a therapy that directs beam radiation from an X-ray machine to the vulva area to kill or shrink the cancer. It is considered the primary form of treatment when the tumour extends into the urethra or anus. 

It is sometimes the only treatment needed. In other times, it will be used before surgery to make the operation less extensive or after surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells. Or it will be combined with other types of therapy, for instance, chemotherapy. 


Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill rapidly-growing cancer cells and prevent them from growing and spreading in your body. 

It effectively eliminates cancer in areas that cannot be successfully treated with surgery or radiation alone. Hence why it is widely used in advanced stages. It is also said to be the primary or sole treatment in many cancer cases.

The downside, however, is that it is commonly known to damage your healthy cells in the process. The side effects are namely hair loss, rashes, dryness of skin, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea.

Can We Prevent Vulvar Cancer?

It is possible to lower your risk of vulvar cancer. Below are five things you can practise to prevent cancer or reduce the chances:

  1. Make positive life changes like quit smoking and practise a healthy lifestyle overall.
  2. Avoid having multiple sexual partners to prevent HPV and HIV infections.
  3. Get HPV-vaccinated to protect from certain types of HPVs. Routine vaccination is necessary to reduce your risk of vulvar and cervical cancer.
  4. Schedule regular screenings to ensure your body is healthy. Remember, the earlier you get your diagnosis, the better your treatment outcomes will be.
  5. Limit your exposure to sunlight and cancer-causing substances.

What Happens After Treatment?

After treatment, you’re most likely going to have to do another round of tests periodically. This allows you to check for any signs if the cancer returns. Generally, it is recommended testing two to four times every year for the first two years after vulvar cancer treatment.

Besides that, you can turn to support groups and resources for assistance.

Support Group and Resources

A cancer diagnosis is truly a tough pill to swallow. Support groups are available for patients and their caregivers who are struggling in their battle with cancer. They provide you or your loved ones a place to share and find comfort in a community that understands best.

We recommend three active support groups in Malaysia:

Not only will you get to be part of a larger community of cancer survivors, you can also be sure to receive useful resources and aid ranging from wellness classes to counselling to financial assistance.

Interested to know more about these groups? Find more information about them here.

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  1. American Cancer Society, Inc. (February 4, 2019). Survival Rates for Vulvar Cancer. Retrieved from 
  2. American Cancer Society, Inc. (November 22, 2019). How Is Chemotherapy Used to Treat Cancer?. Retrieved from 
  3. Borhan, N. F. (2020). Cervical Cancer. Retrieved from 
  4. Bruni L., Albero G., Serrano B., Mena M., Collado J. J., Gómez D., Muñoz J., Bosch F. X., de Sanjosé S. (2021). Human Papillomavirus and Related Diseases in Malaysia.  ICO/IARC Information Centre. Retrieved from 
  5. Cancer Research UK. (2019). Screening – Vulvar Cancer. Retrieved from 
  6. Kumar, K. (2021). Can Vulvar Cancer Be Cured?. Retrieved from 
  7. Mayo Clinic. (October 10, 2021). Lichen sclerosus. Retrieved from 
  8. Olawaiye, A. B., Cuello, M. A., & Rogers L. J. (2021). Cancer of the vulva: 2021 update. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. Retrieved from 
  9. World Health Organization. (November 30, 2021). HIV/AIDS. Retrieved from 


About the Writer
Jo-Kym New
Jo-Kym is an inbound marketer who is deeply passionate about mental health and family relationships. Her creative outlets are journalling, mobile photography, food and fashion.
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